many regarded this information as rumor. Today, it is known as the 104th Training Division (Leader Training) and based at Fort Lewis, Washington, as a training unit of the United States Army Reserve . (11) The U.S. Army rushed medical personnel, food, and equipment to the by side in indescribable filth lay the emaciated living, too weak to move away Yet in a short period of two days I and many others of the as a top secret satellite camp of Buchenwald in 1943 after British bombers destroyed the main missile research base at Peenemuende on the Baltic Coast. [15] They found hundreds of dying prisoners lying amongst more than a thousand corpses, including many children and babies. weight of the other bodies piled on them had been too much for their starved, After fierce fighting in the Ruhr pocket, it advanced into central Germany and took the Prussian university town of Halle on April 19. hospitalization, and feeding, unparalleled to any day of combat. In my own thoughts I choked up - couldn't National Timberwolf Association. We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. The war-hardened soldiers of the 104th had seen the worst in humanity. Although there are modern accounts from the men of the 104th regarding the horrific experience at Camp Mittelbau Dora, there was very little information published about the 104th Division's role in liberating the Camp The 104th Infantry Division formally activated with ceremonies at Camp Adair, Oregon. Other survivors were cared for in apartments confiscated from the Germans. (11) The U.S. Army rushed medical personnel, food, and equipment to the camp. human filth. survivor Jean Mialet. (10) The aftermath of these atrocities were what the Timberwolves were to encounter on April 11, 1945. 5,000 corpses among the 6,000 inmates in various stages of decay. send e-mail comments or queries to the Webmaster: Its role and size have expanded over that time due to the consolidation of other training commands, and the division subsequently took charge of a number of brigades specializing in various entry-level training for soldiers of all types. What were some similarities between racism in Nazi Germany and in the United States, 1920s-1940s? For other concentration camps near, Location of Boelcke-Kaserne within Germany, Boelcke-Kaserne concentration camp (Thuringia), SS files list 1,662 deaths between 8 January and 2 April 1945, but this is believed to be incomplete, and does not include those who died in the bombing or around the time of liberation. The Journey of Private Galione: How America Became a Super Power. 8 September, 1944.). Buchenwald concentration camp; and The 104th Timberwolf Division received two Medals of Honor, 24 Distinguished Service Crosses, one Distinguished Service Medal, 786 Silver Star Medals, six Legion of Merits, . We were battle-tired considerably more so on this writer. to do. Despite this, the advance was steady, though paid for in the lives of the 104th Division soldiers. Time dulls Shephard, Ben. Colonel Taggart called into action, early 12 April, the litter emaciated frames. He had gone as far as possible to escape the fury of war when Comments? Casualty figures for the 104th Infantry Division, European theater of operations: The nickname of the 104th Infantry Division, "Timberwolf," originated from the division's insignia, a gray timberwolf. The trial convicted fifteen Dora SS guards and Kapos (one was executed). The 104th Infantry Division was recognized as a liberating unit by the US Army's Center of Military History and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 1988. they worked several days carrying litter cases and collecting corpses by hand. [18] During this time, some of the division's assets fell under command of the 1st Infantry Division and the 3rd Armored Division. Reports indicated that approximately one hundred bodies were cremated per day, He told me that many of the 3,000 dead reaching for the hands of their liberators as they shed their tears. So under the leadership of Colonel Jones and Chaplain Steinbeck, who spoke His dozen or so photos from Mittelbau-Dora show rows of emaciated corpses in brutal clarity (inexplicably,. [5] Prisoners called it a "living crematorium" (German: lebendes Krematorium). Language links are at the top of the page across from the title. You are invited to read the rest is pleased to announce that a 2014 edition of TIMBERWOLF TRACKS is now available. With care, he was lifted upon a litter and taken to our waiting One girl in particular I [5] Assigned to the division were the 207th and 208th Infantry Brigades, containing the 413th, 414th, 415th, and 416th Infantry Regiments. It became He was comparatively healthy, as (1) By April of 1945 the Timberwolves were nearing the town of Nordhausen. Liberated on: April 11, 1945 . walk, this man was genuinely moved to pay tribute to those who were helping him [6] As a unit of the Organized Reserves, the division's subordinate units were spread among the states of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming. Otherwise, please send us your comments, stories, or any other information you wish to share.Please do not send anything obscene or offensive. attention and salute us as tears slowly trickled down his cheeks. On the grounds US Airman inspecting V-1 factory at Camp Mittelbau-Dora. (3) Richard Murphy, "Survivors of V2 Nazi Slave Camp Mark Liberation," Reuters, April 10, 1995, under "The Nizkor Project," http://nizkor.org/ftp.cgi/camps/buchenwald/press/reuters.040395 (Oct. 24, 2009). Rows upon rows of skin-covered skeletons From 1943 until 1945, 60,000 prisoners had toiled According to Rosenbach, who worked drilling holes in the walls in which the serve as a silent witness to the evil committed at Camp Mittelbau Dora. have the gas chambers of Dachau or Buchenwald, a refinement apparently reserved 9th Infantry Division . The temperature was eight or nine degrees Celsius (46 - 48 degrees Fahrenheit) It was briefly inactivated from 2008 until 2010 when it was . [40] Bernard Moore was a member of the 104th Timberwolves and went on to be the manager at the Waldorf Astoria Towers in New York, later promoted to the Washington Hilton in Washington, DC.[41]. Private In black forbidding nights and Concentration Camp, was first viewed as just another spot on the map, but The Saturday Evening Post (August 17, 1946): 20-43. The article recounts the heroic feats of the 104th as if recapping a college football game. In the eight days from July 18 to July 25, 1918, the 104th Infantry was to pass through a crucible of fire and steel. TO ORDER CONTACT THE WEBMASTER bodies. Photographs and newsreel footage of the camp were reported internationally and made Nordhausen notorious in many parts of the world. the now familiar striped uniforms, bodies shrunken, white faces blood drained, Prisoners assigned to this duty could draw the rations of the dead. There were others, in dark cellar rooms, lying in disease and filth, of beatings and floggings by their inhuman guards. On April 11, the 104th Infantry and the 3rd Armored Divisions liberated Nordhausen death camp, a subcamp of Mittlebau concentration camp, which they discovered nearby. (2) Mary Galione-Nahas, The Journey of Private Galione: How America Became a Super Power, (Washington: Pleasant Word Press 2004). The first camp to be liberated was the concentration camp of Buchenwald, located near Weimar, Germany. The very few walking skeletons able to stand wandered about dazedly in But few realized the evil acts that Hitler and his Nazi regime were committing against humanity. The This camp was created by the SS for prisoners too weak or too ill to work in the tunnels of Dora on the fabrication of the German V1 and V2 rockets. 'monsieur' very softly, and at my feet, lying as if dead, was a cadaverous man; The concentration camp prisoners were separated from the forced laborers by an electrified fence topped with barbed wire, and transported to work via a purpose-built railway spur. (10) Mary Galione-Nahas, The Journey of Private Galione: How America Became a Super Power, (Washington: Pleasant Word Press 2004). Workers were View the list of all donors. TTY: 202.488.0406, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC, The Holocaust and World War II: Key Dates, Holocaust Survivors and Victims Resource Center. unbelievable to an American; a job distasteful and sobering; one created by the The 104th Infantry Division formally activated with ceremonies at Camp Adair, Oregon. knives and bullets for the males, desert death marches, hunger and rape for the [5][7] Some prisoners, weakened from their ordeal at other concentration camps, never recovered from the stress of transport, often in open railway cars, with inadequate food and water. Explore a timeline of events that occurred before, during, and after the Holocaust. On April 11, 1945, the 104th Infantry Division entered the Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp complex [also known as Nordhausen] in Germany's Thuringia region. Among the men of the 104th Infantry Division was a medic from Brooklyn, New York. December 1, 2009. In the June-July In the 19 years since this program was inaugurated, the Museum and the Center of Military History have recognized 35 U.S. Army divisions for their heroism, gallantry, and help in liberating prisoners TTY: 202.488.0406, The Holocaust and World War II: Key Dates, Holocaust Survivors and Victims Resource Center. accompanied by a horrible dead-rot stench. That's how I knew I had found something "big" that the Nazis were trying to keep secret. The Americans were given responsibility for taking 22 miles of wet, low country from the Belgian border to the Meuse (Maas). [14] That same day, General Allen received orders from the U.S. First Army, releasing it from Canadian control. V-bomb factory was discovered. Explore a timeline of events that occurred before, during, and after the Holocaust. [15] The division then organized and assembled at Manche, France before heading into combat.[16]. One of the garages held four blocks of prisoners still able to work, for whom conditions were slightly better, but for all prisoners, rations were grossly insufficient to sustain life. Battalion,104th Infantry Division, was there and explained the impact of the She lay there where she Main telephone: 202.488.0400 An hour-by-hour account of the liberation of concentration camp Dachau, based on numerous interviews with former prisoners and the American soldiers who liberated them. When I answered, he brightened and related that a group created to accurately portray and preserve the World War II history of the 104th Infantry On April 11, the American 6th Armored Division liberated Buchenwald near Weimar, one of the largest concentration camps constructed in Germany. But, the photos that follow of the male citizens of the town were ordered to the camp, where under guard, As the 104th advanced into Thuringia, the unit overran Nordhausen and the Dora-Mittelbau concentration camp on April 11, 1945. and there were about thirty corpses piled on the ground awaiting such treatment [8] 1st Brigade took on basic combat training, while 3rd Brigade undertook combat support training, 4th Brigade conducted combat service support training. composure. Washington: Pleasant Word Press 2004. In early April 1945, the Nazis began to evacuate the prisoners from Dora-Mittelbau. occurred. Their corpses were found by the US Army units that liberated the camp on 11 April. The 3rd Armored Division discovers the Dora-Mittelbau concentration camp. 3rd Armored history - permanently engraved in the hearts and memories of There were many bodies strewn about. a quick survey, this was to be as big a medical job as we had been called upon Its men were to write sagas of sacrifice, devotion and heroism. Many of these scientists, including Wernher von Braun, were recruited by the US as part of Operation Paperclip. This meeting helped hasten the liberation of the city of Halle and spare it from further destruction. During that time, it was reassigned to XIX Corps of the Ninth United States Army. SS guards hid in air-raid shelters but did not allow the prisoners to seek cover. Dora. The 5,000 victims here, dead and alive, were United States Army Investigation and Trial Records of War Criminals, National Archives and Records Service. Recognition as a Liberating Unit We went to the stairs and The US 104th Infantry and 3rd Armored Division liberated Dora-Mittelbau on April 11, 1945, but found only a few prisoners. The 5th Brigade, 104th Division was activated at Salt Lake City, Utah. The former soldiers of the 104th Infantry Division, bound together by common memories Washington, DC 20024-2126 If you discover problems, please advise the Webmaster. The soldiers reacted in shock and disbelief to the evidence of Nazi atrocities. beginning of the National Timberwolf Pups Association . It was designed by Charles Livingston Bull, artist and authority on wild life, and represents the northwest. . In July 1948, the division held its first session of summer training. by the hungry and desperate enemy, continued as tongue-twisting towns and Activated in 1921 and deployed during World War II, the division saw almost 200 days of fighting in northwestern Europe as it fought through France, Netherlands, Belgium, and western Germany, fighting back several fierce German counterattacks as it advanced through the theater throughout late 1944 and 1945. Meeting between Franklin D. Roosevelt and Henry Morgenthau Jr. Czech Family Camp at Auschwitz Liquidated, Liquidation of Gypsy Family Camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau, Allied Troops Encounter Natzweiler-Struthof, Himmler Orders Demolition of Auschwitz Gas Chambers and Crematoria, US Troops Capture Ludendorff Railroad Bridge at Remagen, Evacuation of Prisoners from Sachsenhausen, Page 1 of Letter from US Soldier Aaron Eiferman, US Prosecutor Jackson Delivers Opening Statement to International Military Tribunal, New Directive on Immigrant Visas to the US, Article The Holocaust and World War II: Key Dates, Article Recognition of US Liberating Army Units. Zevenbergen was captured and the Meuse was reached on 5 November. Staring at the human debris on with. Was this also the fate of the grandparents, uncles, and aunts I had never known?' The SS was in charge of the Our Timberwolf predecessors in the 104th Infantry Division liberated the Dora-Mittelbau Concentration Camp from Nazi Germany in World War II. limbs. Nor did it In the weeks and months that followed, further inmate transports arrived from Buchenwald almost daily. skeletons wrapped in skin. through the years, and point out the tragedy of this minor concentration camp! The camp was liberated on April 11, 1945, by the soldiers in the Sixth Armored. German civilians bury victims under US Army supervision, On 11 April, advance parties of the US 3rd Armored Division entered Nordhausen with little opposition. about twenty-five men or half-men. Initially word Nordhausen brought us a mixed response of emotions. http://www.archives.gov/research/captured-german-records/microfilm/m1079.pdf. [13], The 104th Infantry Division sailed for the Western Front on 27 August 1944. he would honor me by the traditional kiss on either cheek. [17] The 3rd Armored Division continued eastward and was replaced on the morning of 12 April by the 104th Infantry Division. The full At 1000 hours, the 684 officers and 1,435 enlisted men, then in the division, marched to the central parade grounds, and stood at attention before the speakers platform - - As the first notes of a bugle sounded the Division Commander's party reached the . 406420, Army Battle Casualties and Nonbattle Deaths in World War II, Final Report (Statistical and Accounting Branch Office of the Adjutant General, 1 June 1953), "The Institute of Heraldry: 104th Division", "Archives West: Robert Rust photograph collection, 19301950", "U.S. Army Reserve > Commands > Functional > 108th TNG CMD", "Obituary: Leo Hoegh, 92, Civil Defense Chief for Eisenhower", "Medal of Honor Recipients World War II (AF)", "Medal of Honor Recipients World War II (GL)", United States Army Center of Military History, 104th Infantry Division Command Personnel, Timberwolves: The Story of the 104th Infantry Division. Schmidt was tried again at the Third Majdanek Trial in 1979 for unrelated crimes, and again acquitted. the impact of events. me he had been kicked and beaten repeatedly. Rosenbach was one of the fortunate few to survive Camp Mittelbau Dora. [19] Since 1974, there has been a memorial at the site. In the building bedded on straw side My legs were tired, weak, and the wound in my leg was raw. captured Wehrmacht vehicles and even barnyard carts supplementing more By the end of the training, it had turned out 300 new reservists. [8] In 2005, the current Distinctive Unit Insignia was designed under the direction of Major General Terrill K. (TK) Moffett. Screenwriter Paddy Chayefsky also served with the 104th during WW2. [26] Meanwhile, the 3rd Brigade, 104th Division,[27] as well as the 4th Brigade, 104th Division both activated at Fort Lawton, Washington. There were lash marks on many of their scantily covered backs - definite proof kept walking. Some prisoners were able to escape during the bombing and hid in the nearby woods. Every so often, the floor would be hosed down in order to clean out the excrement. Company is most fitting: The emotional impact was heavy on all who were witness to these incidents but considerably more so on this writer. [3][4], On 8 January 1945, the SS-Totenkopfverbnde, which ran the concentration camp system, took over two two-storey garages of the Luftwaffe barracks to use as housing for 6,000 prisoners who were forced to work in the V-2 rocket production in nearby underground factories. noticed; I would say she was about seventeen years old. This change reflected a change in the division's mission, specifically training officer and non-commissioned officer candidates in their assigned fields. The division was ordered into active military service on 15 September 1942 under the command of Major General Gilbert R. Cook, and was reorganized as the 104th Infantry Division at Camp Adair, Oregon. The death toll from the first raid was 450 in the block for tuberculosis sufferers,[11] and the second raid killed about 1,000 people. and experiences, formed the National Timberwolf Association on October 19, 1945. similar background, on the eye witnessed horror stories of an even more generally speaking, there was no special hatred of the enemy. They never failed to attain an objective on schedule. of the Timberwolves will endure. under the casing were neatly piled about seventy-five bodies, a sight I could Approximately 60,000 prisoners from 21 nations (mostly Russians, Poles, and French) passed through Mittelbau Dora. When US forces liberated Dora-Mittelbau in April 1945, only a few prisoners were still in the camp. (13) "United States of America v. Kurt Andrae et al. The "Timberwolf" division advanced into Belgium by the end of the following month. Note: The 104th Infantry Division liberated the camp on April 11, not March 27. Sergeant Ragene Farris of the 329th Medical After Daybreak: The Liberation of Belsen, 1945. [23] In 1961, the division was relocated to Vancouver Barracks, Washington. I asked myself, 'Is this what is meant by genocide? Photo courtesy of NARA. than a half-century later, the memories of Nordhausen remain fixed in the minds abandoned to die and their bodies burned at the crematorium within the grounds. (and related cases)," United States Army Investigation and Trial Records of War Criminals, National Archives and Records Service. Find topics of interest and explore encyclopedia content related to those topics, Find articles, photos, maps, films, and more listed alphabetically, Recommended resources and topics if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust, Explore the ID Cards to learn more about personal experiences during the Holocaust. SS guards barely entered the camp, instead allowing the prisoners to die from neglect. This changed after the Was this also the fate of the grandparents, uncles and aunts I had never In closing, a quote from Leon Karalokian of the 104th Signal We went downstairs into a filth indescribable, swollen, bulging feet; they had no shoes and they were unbelievably dirty. [20], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}512930.1N 104831.0E / 51.491694N 10.808611E / 51.491694; 10.808611, "Nordhausen concentration camp" redirects here. laid out in neat rows were an estimated thousand decaying corpses ranging from There in beds of crude wood I saw any serious impressions at the moment. in enormous underground factories the deadly supersonic V-2 rockets. All categories. terrible evidence of atrocity. webmaster@104infdiv.org, TO ORDER CONTACT THE WEBMASTER In November, the unit was already approaching the German city of Aachen. The former soldiers of the 104th Infantry Division, bound together by common memories and experiences, formed the National Timberwolf Association on October 19, 1945. [14] During this time, the division was reassigned to VII Corps of the U.S. 1st Army, also part of the Twelfth Army Group. Medics with patient at Camp Mittelbau-Dora, Corpses at the Dora-Mittelbau concentration camp. This terror weapon of little military [10][11] On 15 October 1943, Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen Sr. took command of the division. With the Allies firmly on the north side of the Mark River, German resistance collapsed. Click here for order form:
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